I believe Lenovo ideapad 510 is new enough to support UEFI.
In the picture I can see only one fat32 partition: SYSTEM_DRV on /dev/sda1.
What is the contents of that partition?
In which partition did you install Antergos? It is not visible in the picture…
About Rufus: did you use DD mode?
Another program for creating the installer is Etcher (https://etcher.io/).
Sometimes a USB creator program is not producing a proper USB stick, so then you can try another program.
System info to URL: (lspci; lsblk -fm; sudo blkid; sudo fdisk -l) | curl -F [email protected] https://ptpb.pw/?u=1
System journal to URL: journalctl -b -0 | curl -F [email protected] https://ptpb.pw/?u=1
Donate to development: https://antergos.com/donate/